The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. A lot of research is being done to find out about earthquakes in the past (called palaeoseismology), as they may help indicate when to expect one in the future. Type: EP Release date: November 2005 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet faille alpine (Nouvelle-Zélande, île du Sud) : l'activité de cette faille est sujette à de nombreuses études (Deep Fault Project [1]), car elle est très dangereuse. ... Each type is the outcome of different forces pushing or pulling on the crust, causing rocks to slide up, down or past each other. In earthquake terms, the 850 kilometres (530 mi) long fault is remarkably consistent, rupturing on average every 330 years, at intervals ranging from 140 years to 510 years. Famous examples of these include the San Andreas Fault of California, the Alpine Fault of New Zealand's south island, and the Anatolian Fault in Turkey Beban GNS Science Consultancy Report 2011/217 September 2011 . Project type: PGDipSci. They run along the northwest edge of the island, which is exactly where the Alpine Fault is. However, most of the motion on the fault is strike-slip (side to side), with the Tasman district and West Coast moving North and Canterbury and Otago moving South. The Māori arrived in New Zealand c.1300 but never reached a high population density in the colder South Island. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. Considering the Alpine Fault's large magnitude (M w ∼8.0) earthquakes, the presence of low-friction material at depth in this fault zone is unlikely and would present a mechanical paradox (Sutherland et al., 2000, 2007; Beavan et al., 1999; Norris and Cooper, 2000). The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). At this point it splits into a set of smaller faults known as the Marlborough Fault System. Read more. [11] Over the last thousand years, there have been four major ruptures along the Alpine Fault causing earthquakes of about magnitude 8. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. You can pick out the line of the Alpine Fault on this satellite image of the South Island. This earthquake was associated with the largest observed movement on a strike-slip fault, maximum 18 metres (59 ft). Scientists say that a similar earthquake could happen at any time as the interval since 1717 is longer than between the earlier events. The Alpine fault is defined as the 650 km long feature that extends the length of the South Island. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. These large earthquakes don’t happen very often – the last one was nearly 300 years ago. New Zealand's early separation from other landmasses and subsequent evolution have created a unique fossil record and modern ecology. JFAST gathered important data about the rupture mechanism and physical properties of the fault that caused the huge earthquake and tsunami which devastated much of northeast Japan. How often does the Alpine Fault rupture? Other New Zealand universities, GNS Science and overseas scientists are also interested in the Alpine Fault. This includes mylonites and the Alpine Schist, which increases in metamorphic grade towards the fault. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. The Alpine Fault • Running about 600km up the spine of the South Island, the Alpine Fault is the on-land boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. [9] However, it is now inferred by multiples lines of evidence that the Alpine Fault ruptures creating major earthquakes about every few hundred years. Virginia currently works as a Professor at the University of Mainz. [2] The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). The results suggest that ductile localization due to overlying faults may account for a large proportion of the strain observed in exhumed mylonite zones. Between 25 and 12 million years ago the movement on the proto-Alpine Fault was exclusively strike-slip. We show that stresses transferred to the mid-crust during an Alpine Fault type earthquake may exert a first-order effect on localization in underlying ductile crust. [30] [31] One of the lead researchers said that it is likely to be globally unique. [20] [21], In 1940 Harold Wellman found that the Southern Alps were associated with a fault line approximately 650 km (400 miles) long. Type: Strike-slip fault: Movement: Dextral/convergent, east side up: Age: Miocene-Holocene: Orogeny: Kaikoura: The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. THE ALPINE FAULT ZONE For certain types of reports and certain structural problems, it is advisable to try to identify the Alpine Fault plane as accurately as possible and to fix its position in the field. Where will the next earthquake centred on the Alpine Fault begin? St. Andreas Transform Fault Alpine Fault New Zealand The types of transform fault that are always the longest Oceanic Transform Fault Continental Transform Fault EXPLORING THE PLANETS 3 The crust type and general of thickness of the crust. The Hope Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. In the South Island of New Zealand, the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates can be seen on land. One indication that things have not always been quite so calm on the Alpine fault is the presence of a rock type called psuedotachylite, which is thought to form either during an earthquake or with a meteor impact. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. Scroll down to discover how! This is not a regular pattern, but enough to suggest there is a high probability of a large earthquake in the next 50 years. In the last 12 million years the Southern Alps have been uplifted approximately 20 kilometres, however, as this has occurred more rain has been trapped by the mountains leading to more erosion. The 2014 Eketahuna earthquake struck at 3:52 pm on 20 January, centred 15 km east of Eketahuna on the south-east of New Zealand's North Island. [22], Richard Norris and Alan Cooper from the Department of Geology, University of Otago conducted extensive research on the structure and petrology of the Alpine Fault respectively throughout the later 20th and early 21st centuries. The 1843 Whanganui earthquake occurred on 8 July at 16:45 local time with an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Mw scale. GNS Science has this earthquake catalogued and places the epicenter 35 km east of Taihape, near the border of Hawke's Bay. Alpine climate, climate that is typical to higher altitudes; Alpine tundra, a type of natural region or biome; Alpine orogeny, in geology; Alpine Fault, a geological fault running nearly the entire length of New Zealand's South Island; Biology. The epicentre is estimated to have been within a zone extending 50 km northeast from Whanganui towards Taihape. For every one unit increase in magnitude (e.g. Some trees survive landslides, but the event is marked by unusual growth rings. [2]. Advisers: Sibson, R. Abstract: The section of the Alpine fault between the Cook and Karangarua Rivers provides further information on the structure of the fault zone. These had previously been determined to have occurred in approximately 1100, 1430, 1620 and 1717 CE, at intervals between 100 and 350 years. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. [1] [3], The Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary forms the Macquarie Fault Zone in the Puysegur Trench off the southwestern corner of the South Island and comes onshore as the Alpine Fault just north of Milford Sound. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The Wairarapa Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. – Historic earthquakes – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "Catastrophic events in New Zealand coastal environments", "Videos show devastating impact across South Island if Alpine Fault ruptures", "Thousands to be evacuated, highways blocked for months when Alpine Fault ruptures", "South Island plan for the next Alpine Fault quake", "Buller District Council Lifelines Study (Alpine Fault Earthquake Scenario)", "Harold Wellman and the Alpine Fault of New Zealand", "Structure and distribution of fault rocks in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand", "Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand", "Drilling into an active earthquake fault in New Zealand", "Why are scientists drilling into the San Andreas fault? Guided educational tours to the natural exposure of the Alpine fault, at Gaunt Creek, near Whataroa, South Westland. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a … This gave a mean recurrence rate of 291 years, plus or minus 23 years, down from the previously estimated rate of 329 years, plus or minus 26 years. [27] The DFDP was the second project to try to drill an active fault zone and return samples after the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. What are the challenges of putting a borehole into a fault? The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. How will the next Alpine Fault earthquake compare to the M7.1 Darfield earthquake of 4 September 2010? Le temps de l'apprécier. The Alpine Fault forms a "transform" boundary between the Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate. A transform (oceanic) or strike-slip (continental) fault is one where the relative motion is horizontal. The surface rupture has extended into the north section of the fault as far as the Haupiri River area, which is 25 km northeast of the Alpine Fault junction with the Hope Fault. Virginia Toy is a New Zealand geologist who studies fault zones and earthquakes in New Zealand, Japan and Ecuador. using ground penetrating radar to observe hidden evidence of uplift and horizontal movement. Alpine Fault. Alpine Fault movement The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. Vous vous demandez certainement où je veux en venir, et surtout quel est le rapport avec notre petite Alpined'essai. Alpine Fault. Exemples de décrochements senestres Current research includes: Keith Machin, Teaching Fellow at the University of Canterbury, helped visiting Swiss scientists study the Alpine Fault. Unless otherwise agreed in writing by GNS Science, GNS Science accepts … It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. A transform fault is a type of strike-slip fault at the boundary of two plates. But this should not lead one to overlook the fact that the Alpine Fault, so recognised, may occur in a wide zone of intense faulting, slicing, and brecciation-the Alpine Fault Zone. There is dextral strike-slip motion as well as convergence between the Australian and Pacific plates. Tours are 2.5 hours, and require walking. The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake occurred at 4:10 am on 1 September following a sequence of foreshocks that started the previous evening, and whose epicentre was in the North Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand. This was the first earthquake in New Zealand over magnitude 7 for which written records exist, and the first for which deaths were recorded. The 1863 Hawke's Bay earthquake was a devastating magnitude 7.5 Mw earthquake that struck near the town of Waipukurau on 23 February 1863. We've known about the Alpine Fault for around 80 years. 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